TRADITIONAL CATHOLIC DICTIONARY ONLINE—S

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Sabaoth (sab-ae-oth), n.; Heb., Gr.,L. A word found in the Sanctus of the Mass which is taken from the Hebrew and means, literally, hosts.

Sabbath, n.; Heb., L., A.S. In Hebrew the word means rest. In the Jewish law it was the seventh day of the week, or Saturday, and a day of religious worship; among Christians it is recognized as the day of rest and worship or the first day of the week, Sunday.

Sabellianism, n.; L. A heresy which arose in the second century with Patripassianism and which denied a distinction between the persons in God; thus it denied the Trinity.

Sacrament, The Council of Trent defines sacrament as "a visible sign of invisible grace instituted for our justification." Simply, it is an outward sign instituted by Christ and producing interior grace; the sacrament effects what it symbolizes. There are seven sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Holy Eucharist,Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, Matrimony, all of which are comprised of an outward sign, were instituted by Christ, and give grace.

Sacramentals, n.pl.; L. Certain pious practices or objects blessed by the Church. The blessing is attached that these may serve to increase the devotion of the faithful. Scapulars, holy water, etc., are widely used sacramentals.

Sacrarium,. The piscina; a place connecting directly with the ground where used holy water or relics and ashes of sacred things may be disposed of.

Sacred College, adj. & n,; L., O.Pr. Name given to the college of cardinals; the cardinals officially assembled.

Sacred Heart, n.; L. The physical Heart of Jesus as the symbol of His love for men, which is an object of devotion in the Church. (Cf. Heart of Jesus.)

Sacrifice, n.; L., O.Fr. ; (1) An offering to God; an act of external worship recognizing God's supreme dominion and giving honor to God through the offering of a visible creature which is transformed or destroyed. The offering is made only by a qualified minister or priest. (2) It may also be applied to a voluntary act of self-denial.

Sacrifice (of the Mass), n.; L,, O.Fr.; The holy Sacrifice of the Mass is: the unbloody re-enactment that makes the Sacrifice of the Cross actually present. It is and must be; held to be one and the same sacrifice which is accomplished at Mass and which was accomplished on the cross, because it is the same Victiam who is offered and offers, namely, Christ. It is the renewal of Christ's sacrifice of Himself on the cross accomplished in an unbloody manner. It is the sacrifice of the entire Christ, the Mystical Body, for Christ desires to offer Himself for us and with us. The faithful thus participate in the redemptive sacrifice of Christ by offering satisfaction with Christ and in Christ. (Cf. Mass.)

Sacrilege, n.; L; O.Fr. An act violating a sacred person, object, or place; the violation of a vessel set apart for divine services or an act desecrating a place of divine worship. It must be directed against that by which the object is sacred. The administering or reception of sacraments in an unworthy manner is also a sacrilege and merits severe censure by the Church.

Sacristan, n.; L. One whose duty it is to care for the Church, in particular the altar, vestments, etc.; one who prepares the altar for Mass.

Sacristy, n.; L. A room set aside for the retaining of vestments and in which the priest vests in preparation for Mass; a room off of the sanctuary; the diaconicum.

Sadducees (sad-yoo-sees), n.pl.; Heb., Gr., L. A free-thinking political party among the Jews which was opposed to the Pharisees and held only to the revelation of Moses.

Saint, n.; L.) O.Fr. The person who through a life of heroic virtue or martyrdom has merited the canonization of the Church; a member of the Church triumphant; a person known to be in heaven. 0ne who while on earth exemplified in a special manner not only the keeping of the necessary moral law but also the practice of those counsels left: by Christ which are of strict obligation,

Salic (law), adj.; Fr. A .law derived from Teutonic sources of the fifth century, providing that males should inherit lands in preference to females; also extended to the succession to the throne in France and Spain. (Cf. Morganatic.)

Salt, n.; A.S. Common salt which is exorcised and blessed and used in administering Baptism and in the blessing of holy water.

Salut, n.; Fr. Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament; French term not commonly used.

Salvation, n.; L., O.Fr. Man's proper end; the attaining of the vision of God in heaven.

Salvific (sal-viff-ik), adj.; L. Having the intent to save; such is the will of God who in creating man wills that he is to be saved provided he cooperates.

Samaritans, n.pl.; Heb. The descendants of the Israelites who settled in Samaria and who were rivals of the Orthodox Jews because of a different form of Judaism evolved by them and the erection of a rival temple.

Sanation, n.; L. (1) The making valid of an act which was invalid because of some impediment; it supposes that the cause of invalidity has ceased and is retroactive. (2) Sanatio in radice: a secret validation of an invalid marriage without renewal of consent. The sanction can be granted only by the Holy See, and only in cases in which the marriage was invalid because of some purely ecclesiastical obstacle; it cannot be granted for the validation of a marriage which was invalid because of an impediment of the natural or divine law.

Sanctifying grace, adj.; L., 0 Fr. A divinely produced quality or perfection of the human soul whereby it participates in the nature and life of God and is made to resemble Him as He is; it elevates man's nature to be like God and hence to think as God thinks and to will as He wills. It is absolutely necessary for salvation. (Cf. Grace, Habitual grace.)

Sanctity, n.; L.) O.Fr. Holiness of life; the possession of sanctifying grace; the practice of heroic virtue; the characteristics of a saint.

Sanctissimum (sonk-tees-see-mum),n.; L. In Latin: "The most holy"; the Blessed Sacrament. (Cf. Eucharist; Benediction.)

Sanctorale, n; L. The section of the Missale or Breviarium in which the proper of the Saints is contained. (Cf. Proprium Sanctorum.)

Sanctuary, n.; L. (1) That part of the church embraced by the communion rail and in which the high altar stands; the place in the church reserved for the clergy. Also called presbyterium. (2) The right of sanctuary was that right accorded to a holy place wherein a criminal or fugitive from justice might take refuge and have immunity from the law. (Obs.)

Sanctuary (lamp), n.; L. The vessel containing olive oil and a lighted floating wick or a candle which is left burning in the sanctuary of a church to indicate that our Lord is within the tabernacle of the altar. It symbolizes the light of faith and of Christ in the world.

Sanctus (sonk-toos), n.; L. (1) That part of the Mass forming the conclusion of the Preface; also known as the angelic hymn. (2) The Latin tide for one who has been canonized, a saint.

Sandals, n.pl.; Gr., L (1) Footwear which is part of the liturgical dress of bishops. These lightweight shoes or slippers are usually of the color of the vestments worn, and have the top parts made of silk. (2) The footwear of certain religious orders.

Sanbenito, n.; It. A scapularlike garment worn by those condemned by the Inquisition. (Obs.)

Satan, n.; Heb. The devil; the chief of the devils or Lucifer.

Satisfaction, n,; L,. 0 Fr. The imposed penance given by the priest as necessary to contrition for sins in the Sacrament of Penance; also the rendering of a just return of a debt. (Cf. Restitution.)

Scabellum, n.; L. The shelf on the back portion of an altar whereon candles, crucifix, or decorations are placed; the gradine. (Cf. Altar, Gradine.)

Scamnum, n.; L. The seat or bench upon which the celebrant, deacon, and subdeacon sit during the singing' of the Kyrie, Gloria, and Credo in Solemn High Mass.

Scandal, n.; L., O.Fr. It is defined by St. Thomas as "any word or deed not fully right which is the occasion of sin to another." Scandal may be active, i.e., the giving of the occasion of sin; or passive, i.e., the sin occasioned by another's conduct.

Scapular, n.; L., Fr. (1) a dresslike garment covering the shoulders and descending front and back, usually open at the sides, worn as an external part over the habit of certain monks. (2) The most common scapulars of today are made of two small squares of woolen cloth about two inches wide which are joined by two strings so that one small square may rest upon the back and the other on the breast when placed over one's head; there are eighteen small scapulars now used among Catholics and they may be of various colors.

Scapular Medal, n.; L., Fr. A small medallion of metal with a representation of our Lord and His Sacred Heart on one side and that of the Blessed Virgin on the other which is permitted to be worn instead of the small cloth scapular.

Schism(siz-um). n.;Gr.,L.formal unity church, communion with separation head jurisdiction movement any person or persons church who refuse to recognize central church; denial of authority of a valid supreme roman pontiff. clergy (including a pope)can also become schismatics if they depart from divine tradition and the church's magisterium.

Schismatic(Siz-mat-ik), n. & adj.; Gr., L. One who of his own will departs from the unity of the Church and refuses to acknowledge a valid Roman Pontiff as the supreme head or to accept his Jurisdiction. Adj. Of or pertaining to a schism.

Scholastic, n.&adj.; Gr., L. A philosopher or theologian teaching according to the system of scholasticism. (2) adj. pertaining to scholasticism.

Scholasticism, n.; Gr., L. The thought of Christian philosophers and theologians originating in the ninth century. It developed a characteristic method of investigation and exposition of thought applied to both philosophy and theology, and showed the relationship of philosophy and theology. It reached its height in the thirteenth century, and its greatest propounder was St.Thomas Aquinas. Scholastic theology unfolds and vindicates the conclusions deduced from dogmas by theologians.

Scholasticus, n.; L. A cleric who was placed in charge of the schools of a diocese; a teacher. (Obs.)

Scotism, n.; L. One of the schools of scholastic philosophy, also called the Franciscan school which followed the interpretation of John Duns Scotus, a Franciscan. This philosophical and theological system insisted upon formal distinctions.

Scotula (scot-toola), n.; L. A small hand candlestick; a bugia; a palmatoria. (Cf. Bugia.)

Scribes, n.pl.; L. Professional writers and lawyers among the Jews at the time of our Lord; doctors and teachers of the Law among the Jews.

Scriptorium, n.; L. The room of a monastery where the work of translating and copying manuscripts was carried on.

Scripture, n.; L. The writings of the Bible; the Old and New Testaments as contained in the Bible. (Cf. Bible; Canon of the Scripture.)

Scruple, n.; L., Fr. Unreasonable fear that a thing is forbidden which is permitted, or that a sin is grave when it is only trivial. An excessively severe judgment on one's own conduct based on an erroneous conscience, an obstacle to spirituality inasmuch as a mental obsession is formed and a right conscience destroyed.

Scrutiny, n.; L. (1) The examination of an adult person about to receive Baptism concerning his knowledge of the faith. (2) The examination of one presented for Holy Orders. (3) The term is also used for the election by secret ballot, the usual form used in the election of a pope.

Seal (of confession), n.; A.S. The obligation resting upon the priest in administering the Sacrament of Penance of maintaining absolute secrecy concerning facts learned through sacramental confession; that by which a priest is bound to withhold from the knowledge of others information he has received through sacramental confession.

Secret, n.; L., O.Fr. The prayer or prayers corresponding in form and number with the Collects, which the priest reads silently between the Oftertory and the Preface; they vary according to the feast. (Cf. Commemoration.)

Secret Society, n.; L., O.Fr. A secret society is a group which is founded in order to plot against the Church or State, whose members are bound by oath from revealing to lawful authorities the proceedings and must give obedience to the head, and whose ceremonials simulate Christian rites; societies to which a Catholic is forbidden membership, even though they offend in only one of the above.

Secretarium, n.; L. A side chapel or private room in which a cardinal, bishop, or abbot may rest or assist at the recitation of the Divine Office. Name formerly applied to the sacristy.

Secular (clergy), n. & adj.; L,O Fr. Ordained priests who do not belong to any religious order or monastic institution; more properly called diocesan clergy. Their chief work is to conduct parishes and instruct the faithful.

Secularization, n.; L., O.Fr. (1) Permission given to a professed religious to leave his institute permanently; it carries with it a dispensation from the religious vows. (2) The abolishment of the Church's title to property by the giving of that title to the secular authorities.

Sedia Gestatoria, n.; It. A portable chair; the chair and platform upon which the Pope is carried when making solemn entry into St. Peter's or elsewhere.

Sediarii, n.pl.; L., It. The lay porters or men who carry the sedia gestatoria of the Pope in processions. (Cf, Sedia gestatoria.)

Sedilia, n.; L., It. The sedile. The bench or seat in the sanctuary on which the celebrant and ministers sit during parts of divine services. The scamnum. (Cf. Scamnum.)

See, n.; L., O.Fr. The territory or diocese over which a bishop rules; the extended jurisdiction of a bishop.

Semidouble, n.; L., O.Fr. One of the classifications under a double in the rank of the feasts of the Church.

Seminarian, n.; L. A student studying in a seminary; one preparing for the priesthood.

Seminary, n.; L. A school for the preparation of young men for the priesthood. A diocesan school under the jurisdiction of the bishop and supported by diocesan funds wherein students are trained for the diocesan clergy.

Semi-pelagianism, n.; L. A heresy which arose in the fifth century which denied the proper sphere of the grace of God in the scheme of salvation. It taught especially that grace is not necessary for the beginning of faith, and held a doctrine of predestination. Originally its followers were not considered heretics because they still held belief in the Catholic doctrine.

Separation, n.; L. The discontinuance of co-habitation or the separation of husband and wife from bed and board while both remain under the bond of their marriage; the grant of such separation by the Church for good reasons. However, such separation, in the case of adultery, may be spontaneous and assumed mutually by the two parties; separation may be either permanent or temporary.

Septuagesima (sep-ta-jes-ee-ma), n.; L. The third Sunday before Lent; the Sunday which begins the prelenten season.

Septuaguint, n.; L. The first translation of the Bible; the name of the Greek translation of the Old Testament made from the Hebrew between 300 and 130 B.C.

Sepulcrum, n.; L. Also sepulchre. The square or oblong opening in the altar top or mensa into which the altar relics are placed, or that: place where the altar stone is contained in the altar top.

Sequence, n.; O.Fr. The hymn sung after the gradual in certain Masses. It is sometimes called a prose because originally it was not writien in any particular meter. Formerly sequences were very numerous. Only five are found in the "editio typica" Missale Romanum: for Easter, Victimae paschali; for Pentecost, Veni Sancte Spiritus; for Corpus Christi, Lauda Sion; for the Seven Sorrows of our Lady, Stabat Mater; and the Dies Irae in requiem Mass. With the exception of Victimae Paschali, the sequences now in the Missale are quite as metrical as the other hymns, (Cf. Prose.)

Seraph, n.; Heb. An angel; one of the order of seraphim.

Seraphic (seh-raf-ik), adj., Heb. A name applied to St. Bonaventure because of his learned teaching; the seraphic doctor.

Sermon, n.; L., O.Fr. A discourse preached in church; a homily or an instruction. (Cf. Homily.)

Server, n.; L., A.S. One who ministers to the priest while he says Mass; an acolyte, a man but more usually a boy, who assists the priest by answering the prayers of Mass and completing necessary actions of the Mass.

Servile, adj.; L. Work which demands the expenditure of considerable muscular energy and is directed primarily to the bodily welfare of men; originally, work which was performed by a slave or servant.

Seven Dolors, n.& adj., pl.; A.S. The sorrows, seven in number, which the Blessed Virgin suffered by being the Mother of Jesus; namely, the prophecy of Simeon, the flight into Egypt, the three days' loss of Jesus, the meeting with Jesus on the way to Calvary, standing beneath the cross, the descent of Jesus from the cross, and the burial of Jesus, There is a rosary which forms a devotion to the seven mysteries of the Blessed Virgin's sorrows.

Seven Gifts (of the Holy Ghost), n. pl. Permanent dispositions in the faculties of the soul, which are received together with sanctifying grace enabling the just man to receive and follow the special en-lightenments and inspirations of the Holy Ghost; the seven gifts are: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord.

Sexagesima (sek-sa-jes-ee-ma), n,; L The second Sunday before Lent; literally, sixtieth or sixty days before Easter.

Sext, n.; L. (i) One of the day hours of the Breviarium Romanum . (2) In canon law, the abbreviation for the sixth book of the decretals of Boniface VIII.

Sexton, n.; L., O.Fr. The caretaker of the church, or janitor; also the sacristan or the one who rings the bell of the church.

Shrine, n.; L,, A.S. A place of devotion, usually consisting of a grotto or chapel erected to commemorate some event or place of special religious significance; a place to which pilgrimages are made.

Shroud, n.; A.S. (1) A cloth for placing over or binding a corpse; the cloth of death. (2) The holy shroud is the relic of the linen cloth in which our Lord was wrapped when laid in the tomb. This relic is still preserved in Turin and bears an impression of the body of our Lord. It measures thirteen and one half by four and one fourth feet.

Shrovetide, n.; A.S. The Monday and Tuesday immediately following Quinquagesima Sunday. It is so named because people went to confession (shriving) to consult their spiritual directors about fasting.

Shrove Tuesday, n.; A.S. The day before Ash Wednesday; the day before the beginning of the Lenten fast.

Sigillator, n.; L. The title of the person who attaches the seals to the official documents of the Sacred Penitentiary.

Siglum, n.; L. An indicated, abbreviated mark of biblical criticism.

Sign (of the Cross), n.; L., Fr. That sacramental which consists in making the movement with the right hand from the forehead to the breast and to the left and right shoulders in that order. It is Eroneously called "blessing one's self."

Signature, n.; L., Fr. Signatura. One of the three tribunals or courts of the Roman curia; it is both a court of appeal and a court of special cases.

Simar (see-mar), n.; It. The black cassock with a purple cape, sash, buttons, and piping worn in the house by a bishop. Also, zimarra.

Simony, n.; L., O.Fr. The selling or giving in exchange of a temporal thing for a spiritual thing, such as the buying of a blessing; such sale is forbidden by the natural and ecclesiastical law.

Simple, n.; L., O.Fr. The third ranking classification of the feasts of the Church, so called because the holy office is in "simple" form with the psalms of three nocturnes recited in one nocturne only. Used of vows; those which are not public.

Sin, n.; A.S. A transgression of the law of God in thought, word, deed, or omission; broadly, sins are grouped under the headings of either mortal or venial. (Cf. Mortal,Venial, Omission, and Commission.)

Sinaiticus (Sigh-nigh-tee-koos), n.; Gr., L. An old Greek manuscript dating back to the fourth or fifth century, containing both the Old and New Testaments.

Sindon, n.; L. The linen winding-sheet wrapped about our Lord when He was placed in the sepulchre. (Cf. Shroud.)

Sister, n.; L., 0.E. A member of a religious order of women. (Cf. Nun.)

Sisterhoods, n.pl.;L., O.E. The name applied to the religious orders of women or to the orders of nuns.

Sistine (sis-teen), adj.; It. The chapel of the Pope, the principal chapel of the Vatican Palace. Of or pertaining to one of the popes named Sixtus.

Slander, n.; L.,O.Fr. The willful detraction by uncharitable words or writings of the good name or reputation of another; malicious statements, whether true or false, which deprive another of his good name, his reputation, or his position in society. Restitution must be made in so far as possible. (Cf. Calumny.)

Sloth, n.; Fr. A spiritual vice which is a heavy sorrow which makes one reluctant to exercise any virtue; sorrow at the spiritual good of any virtue and is contrary to charity which should cause one to rejoice in virtue and easily perform virtuous acts. It is one of the capital sins or vices because it easily leads to other sins such as despair, etc. The contrary virtue is diligence. (Cf. Capital sins.)

Society , n,; L., Fr. (1) A union of men cooperating in attaining an end beneficial to each and all; an association of the laity, either men or women or both, who organize for the purpose of advancing a worthy cause of religion together with the intent of becoming, individually, more perfect. (Cf. Sodality.) (2) A religious society is a group of persons, priests or brothers, following a religious rule and devoted to some apostolic work, yet not living a monastic life as such.

Socinians, n. pl; L. Heretics of the sixteenth century who denied the Trinity; in one form or another, theirs is the belief of most extreme modernists.

Sodality, n.; L. An association of lay persons, male or female or both, who meet for the performing of pious exercises, submittring themselves to the spiritual direction of a leader and following a uniform set of principles or rules for the promotion of a particular devotion or good work. (Cf. Pious Union.)

Solemn Mass, n.; L., O.Fr, A high Mass sung with a celebrant, deacon, and subdeacon.

Solemnity,n.; L., O.Fr. Any feast which is celebrated universally or locally with full liturgical observance. Sometimes applied to the title of a feast to indicate its more solemn celebration; e.g. the Solemnity of St. Joseph.

Solemnization, n.; L., O.Fr. Said of a marriage which is contracted with nuptial Mass and Blessing.

Solesmes, n.; Fr. Solemn liturgical chant of Gregorian music as derived from the form used and advanced by the Benedictine monks of Solesmes Abbey near Sable, France.                       

Solideo, n.; L., It. A skullcap; the zucchetto worn by a prelate in Mass except from the beginning of the Preface until after Communion. The Pope's zucchetto is white, a cardinal's red, a bishop's purple, and an abbot's black.

Solitary, n.; L. A hermit, one living entirely alone to practice mortification and spirituality.

Son, n.; A.S. The Son of God; the second Person of Blessed Trinity, the Word, Only begotten; Jesus Christ. called the Son of Man because His human nature is present with His divine nature.

Son of Man, n.; L,, O.E, Term frequently used in the Gospels in referring to our Lord.

Sophonias, n.; Gr. The Greek word for the Hebrew name Zephaniah; one of the minor prophets.

Soteriology, n.; Gr. The theology of Christ as the Redeemer of mankind; the study of the Redemption through Christ as Intercessor.

Soul, n.; A.S. The immaterial and immortal principle which is the substantial form of the body and which gives unity to the human being; that infused principle which through God gives life to man and remains for all eternity.

Spiritual Communion, adj.; L., O.Fr. The earnest desire to communicate when not actually able to do so, accompanied by appropriate prayers in the form of acts of love, thanksgiving, etc.

Spiritual (works of mercy), adj.; L., O.Fr. Acts of love performed for our neighbor by helping him in his needs of body and soul. They are: to counsel the doubtful, to instruct the ignorant, to admonish the sinner, to comfort the sorrowful, to forgive injuries, to bear wrongs patiently, and to pray for the living and the dead.

Spiritualism.; L., O.Fr. A belief m the communication with the dead and the system of doctrines derived from such supposed communication; the practice of individuals, usually called mediums, claiming through exceptional powers to be able to receive messages or manifestations in the form of revelations from the spirit world; condemned by decree of the Holy See in June, 1856.

Spirituals, n.pl.; L., O.Fr. Things pertaining to the Church or the clergy, either rights, duties, or material possessions intended for religious purposes.

Sponsors, n.pl.; L. A person who answers or vouches for another; the spiritual parents or godparents of a baptized person; the two persons who act for the child in making a profession of faith at the reception of Baptism. The spiritual tie formed between the person baptized and the godparents forms an impediment to marriage between a sponsor and the one baptized because it establishes a spiritual relationship; in the case of a sponsor for Confirmation, however, such relationship is not an impediment to marriage.

Spoon, n.; A.S. A small gold ladle which was used in measuring a few drops of water to be placed in the wine during the Mass; a chalice spoon. This spoon is seldom used today.

Spy Wednesday, n.; O.Fr. The name given to the Wednesday of Holy Week because of the betrayal of Christ to Jewish highpriests by Judas on this day.

Staff, n.; A.S, A name sometimes given to the crosier or pastoral staff of a bishop.

Stalls, n.pl.; A.S. The seats in the choir for those who recite the traditional Divine Office in common. (Cf. (2) of definition.)

Stations, n.pl.; L., O.Fr. (1) The word is still used in the Missale on certain feast days and is retained from the old custom of the Roman clergy and people to meet in some church of Rome where the Pope or his delegate sang Mass. Such churches were called Station;;. (2) Stations of the Cross are a series of fourteen representations of events in the Passion of Christ; the devotion to the stations or to the particular events which occurred during the Passion of our Lord; such pictures or carved representations on the walls of a church.

Stigmata, n.pl.; L. The wounds of our Lord, namely, the pierced hands and feet and side, and the marks of the crown of thorns; the miraculous appearance of some or all of these wounds on a person which is permitted so that the person may join in the suffering of our Lord.

Stigmatist, n.; L. A person who through a miracle bears in his body one or all of the wounds of our Lord, e.g., St. Francis of Assist, St. Catherine of Siena. Also, stigmatic.

Stipend, n.; L., O.Fr. A term applied generally to the support of the clergy or the revenue of a benefice; today it is more commonly applied to the offering made by the faithful when asking that a Mass be said for their particular intentions.

Stipites, n.pl.; the plural of stipes; L. The supports of the mensa of a fixed altar; the pillars or posts upon which the mensa rests.

Stock, n.; A.S. (1) The metal container for the Holy Oils. (2) The piece of cloth (black for priests, purple for prelates worn on the breast beneath the collar at the opening of a suit coat --a stock and collar.

Stole, n.; Or., L., A.S. A long narrow vestment of the same material and color as the chasuble, which is worn about the neck; when worn by a deacon it is suspended from the left shoulder, crosses the breast diagonally, and is fastened at the waist; when worn by a priest the ends are crossed on the breast, and when worn by a bishop the two ends hang down from the shoulders in front. It symbolizes immortality and the yoke of obedience assumed by the priest.

Stole-fee, n .pl.; Gr.,L., A.S. An offering made by a lay person to a priest; the customary fee which the laity pays a priest when performing a sacred office such as a marriage or baptism.

Stoup, n.; Scand. A holy water basin or font at the entrances of all Catholic churches.

Stragulum, n.; L. See vesperal cloth.

Stylites, n.pl. (sing.); Gr. A solitary or hermit who lived a life of mortification on the top of a pillar; the most famous of such hermits was St. Simeon surnamed Stylites. Also stylite.

Subcinctonum, n.; L. An ornamental cloth vestment worn by the Pope at Solemn Mass, which hangs from the cincture on the right side and is about a foot square with an embroidered lamb on one side and a cross on the other.

Subdeacon, n.; L. A Cleric of the Church who has received the sacramental which is classed as the first of the major orders; his duties in the Latin Church are to prepare the sacred vessels for Mass, to assist at a Solemn Mass by pouring water into the chalice at the Offertory, and to sing the Epistle, (Cf. Major Orders, Holy Orders.)

Subdelegate, n ; L. The person to whom one who has received delegated ecclesiastical powers transfers his jurisdiction for a particular case.

Subdiaconate, n,; L. State of one who has received the first of the major orders. (Cf. Subdeacon.)

Submitrale, n.; L. A skullcap; the bishop's zucchctto. Meaning literally, worn under the mitre.

Subreption, n,; L. The concealment or misstating of truth in statements necessary for the obtaining of a rescript; such a defect in an official ecclesiastical document.

Substance, n.; L., O.Fr. A thing which exists in itself and does not need another thing in which to inhere in order to exist; the thing in which accidents exist as in a support; that being which subsists in itself and not in another. (Cf. Accidents.)

Succentor, n.; L. The synagoga; the one chanting or singing those portions of the Gospel story of the Passion which are spoken by the crowd or other persons mentioned in the account. (Cf. Passion music.)

Sudarium, n.; L. The shroud of Christ; sometimes referred to the cloth used by Veronica in wiping the face of Christ. Name sometimes applied to the stole.

Suffragan (bishop), n.; L., O.Fr. A bishop of a diocese which forms part of a province.

Suffrage, n.; L., O.Fr. An intercessory prayer generally offered for the poor souls in Purgatory.

Suicide, n.; L. The direct ending of one's own life; when fully deliberate, it is punished by the deprivation of ecclesiastical burial. It is a mortal sin, as are also acts dangerous to human life when voluntarily performed without a proportionate necessity.

Suisse, n.; Fr. A soldier in the Pope's Swiss Guard. (Cf. Guards.)

Summa, n.; L. Literally, a compendium. A text treating of theology, philosophy, or canon law; a summary of all the findings of reason.

Sunday, n.; A.S. The first day of the week which from apostolic times and from Sacred Scripture (Apoc. 1:10) became known as the "Lord's Day" and is set aside for rest and divine worship. In Latin, Dominica.

Supererogation, n.; L. That which is done over and above duty or obligation. In regard to the saints, those good acts which they performed, which they need not have done, but which were done for a higher motive and usually were to benefit others.

Superstition, n.; L., O.Fr. A vice of excess in religion or in worship; the giving to a creature of honor belonging to God alone or the giving to God of a false or undue honor; such excess may be in the object to which it is attached or in the manner of showing religious honor.

Suppedaneum, n.; L. (1) The predella, the platform on which the altar stands. (2) The small footrest sometimes seen beneath the feet of Christ on a crucifix.

Suppositum, n.; L A single complete substance of any kind whatsoever. (Cf. Substance.)

Suppression, n.; L. A word usually used in regard to monasteries or religious houses; it means the confiscation of properties and the disbanding of the communities.

Surplice, n.; L., O.Fr. A garment, sometimes called a vestment, made of white linen or of another white cloth which is worn over the cassock by priests in the administration of Sacraments; the familiar white garment about coat length with short sleeves which is permitted to be worn by altar boys or acolytes in serving Mass. A superpellicium.

Suspension, n.; L., Fr. The ecclesiastical penalty or censure imposed upon clerics for-bidding them to exercise their orders or perform the functions of their office or to accept the financial support of their benefice.

Syllabus, n.; L. The digest or list of errors which Pope Pius IX condemned and which was printed and circulated at his command in December of 1864; also that of Pius X, entitled "Lamentabile." of July 3, 1907, against modernism; the name applied to such a digest made by a Pope and promulgated by him.

Symbol, n.; Gr. (1) An act or representation by which a thing or person is known. (2) The The word symbol is applied also to the Creed or to the scientific exposition of doctrinaldifferences among various religious groups, especially after the sixteenth century.

Symbolism, n.; Gr., L. The picturing of a thing by simile or metaphor rather than by the actual representation of that thing or event; an interior meaning attached to a particular representation of a religious character; visibly representing spiritual things.

Synagoga, n.; Gr., L. The title of the singer who chants the words of persons other than Christ in Passion music. (Cf. Passion music.)

Synaxis, n.; Gr. The gathering together of the early Christians for worship; any assembly for hearing Mass or praying in common. Also a feast day in the Byzantine rite.

Syncellus, n.; L. At one time the name applied to the priest companion of a bishop or one who lived in the bishop's home and served him as secretary.

Syndic, n.; Gr., L. Today this term is applied to an agent or representative of a religious community; one representing a community.

Synod, n.; Gr., L. A gathering of the bishop and priests of a diocese to determine legislation for the diocese or to apply the canon law to the particular needs of the diocese.

Synodal Examiners, adj.& n.pl.; Gr., L. A group of priests, usually four to twelve in number,appointed ai a diocesan synod who test the qualifications of those to be given benefices or other church offices within the diocese.

Synodal Judges, n.pl.; Gr., L. See Judges, synodal.

Synodaticum, n.; Gr,, L. The fee paid by each parish to the bishop of the diocese for his maintenance, so named because it is customary to pay it in synod. More frequently called cathedraticum.

Synoptics, n.pl.; Gr., L. The name given to the first three gospels, namely the accounts of Matthew. Mark, and Luke, and so named because they all outline the life and teaching of Jesus in a relatively similar manner.

Synoptists, n.pl.; Gr., L. The first three Evangelists, namely, Manhew, Mark, and Luke; the writers of the synoptic Gospels.

Synteresis, n.; Gr. Sometimes, synderesis. The natural knowledge of moral law possessed by man; sometimes the interpretation of conscience. In theology, the habitual knowledge of the prime principles of moral actions; knowledge one has naturally of the natural Law of God; the apprehension by the intellect of the general moral principles from which practical reason draws its particular conclusions.

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