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Palatine, adj.; L. Pertaining to certain high prelates of the papal court; also to the papal guard established by Pius IX in 1850. (Cf. Guards.)

Palestine, n.; L. The land situated at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea. The land given by God to the chosen people and sanctified by the Life of Christ. The Holy Land. (Lat. 31° n., 31° s.; Long, 34°-36'1.)

Pall, n.; L.; A.S. A square piece of linen usually stiffened with a piece of cardboard which is used to cover the chalice.

Pallium, n.; L. A vestment conferred by the Pope upon an archbishop which consists of a small band of white wool worn around the neck with a short pendant descending on the breast and the back and on which there are six black crosses. Also used as a name for a frontal or antependium.

Palm Sunday, n.; L. The Sunday before Easter; the Sunday celebrating the triumphal entrance of Jesus into Jerusalem.

Palmatoria, n.; L. A small candlestick held with a lighted candle at a bishop's Mass; a bugia.

Papabile, n.; It. Colloquial Italian name of a cardinal likely to be elected to succeed a deceased pope.

Papacy, n.; L. Of or pertaining to the office of the Pope; the rule of a Roman pontiff; the succession of popes.

Papal Chamberlain, n. Italian: Prelate di mantellone. One upon whom the dignity, either honorary or actual, of attending the person of the Pope has been conferred. A chamberlain is classed as a secondary prelate of the papal court and enjoys the title and honors of a prelate. The tide and honor, however, is attached to his office and is usually lost at the death of the reigning Pope. He is addressed Very Reverend Monsignor.

Parable, n.; L., O.Fr. An illustrative story pointing to some moral or religious truth; a manner of speaking used by our Lord as related in the Gospel.

Parabolani,; Gr., It. A name applied in the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries to those who exposed themselves to danger; for instance; by assisting the priests in caring for the sick or the plague stricken.

Paraclete, n.; Gr., L. Literally: a consoler, A name applied in the Gospel of St. John to the Holy Ghost; a name of the Holy Ghost, the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Paradise, n.; Gr., L. A park or garden; used of that place. wherein Adam and Eve lived before their sin; it was later applied to the place known as limbo; in tie Gospels it is also applied to heaven.

Paralipomenon (para-lip-a-men-on), n.; Gr. The name used in the Catholic version of the Bible for the two books called the first and second Chronicles in Protestant version.

Parallelism , n.; Gr., L. The most distinctive mark of Hebrew poetry in which one thought is opposed to another or repeats the same idea; it is most frequently found in the Psalms.

Paraments,; L. Vestments; ornamented vestments used in sacred ceremonies.

Parasceve, n.; Gr., L. A name used in the missal and designating Good Friday, the Friday of Holy Week; literally, a day preparing for the Sabbath.

Parish, n.; Gr,, L. A division within a diocese; a particular district governed by a pastor; the boundaries or limits within which a priest has the serving of a church and the members of the faithful within that territory. There are also; (a) national parishes, which are erected with the permission of the Holy See and are not divisions of territory but rather divisions according to the nationality and language of the people who are served in these churches; thus a parish established for a certain nationality which is the result of immigration. (Can. 216, sec. 4.) (b) Consistoriat parishes.

Parish (priest), n.; Gr., L. A priest assigned to minister to the faithful within a certain district of a diocese; sometimes called pastor and in French, a cure.

Parousia (pa-roo-zee-a), n.; Gr. The second coming of Christ.

Panicle, n.; L. Name given to a small altar bread.

Parvis, n.; L. An enclosed or partly open porch at a church entrance.

Pasch (pask), n.; Heb., Gr. Literally, the Hebrew "passover." A name applied to the Feast of the Resurrection or Easter.

Paschaltide, n.; Heb., Gr. The season of the liturgical year, extending from Holy Saturday to the Saturday after Pentecost.

Paschal Candle, adj. & n.; Gr., L. The candle blessed on Holy Saturday morning and burned in the sanctuary from Easter to Ascension Thursday, which symbolizes the presence of Christ on earth for forty days after His Resurrection.

Paschal Precept, n.; Gr., L. The obligation resting upon all the faiihful who have reached the age of reason to receive Holy Communion in the course of the Easter season; also called the Easter duly.

Passion (of Christ), n.; L. The suffering and death of our Lord and the redemption of mankind; in particular, the suffering of our Lord on Good Friday.

Passion music, n.; L. The liturgical singing on Palm Sunday or Good Friday of the Gospel account of our Lord's Passion. It is sung during the Mass by three voices: the Narrator, or chronista, who sings the narrative; the Christus, who sings the words of our Lord; the Synagoga, who sings the words of the other persons in the account. (Cf. Chronista,Christus, and Synagoga.)

Passion Sunday, n.; L. The Sunday before Palm Sunday or the second Sunday before Easter.

Passiontide,n.; L. The time between Passion Sunday and Holy Saturday morning.

Passover, n,; L. Easter or the Feast of the Resurrection; the Pasch.

Pastor, n.; L. Literally a shepherd; the title by which a parish priest is most generally known in the United States.

Pastoral, n.; L. A letter addressed by a bishop to all the faithful within his diocese for their spiritual good.

Pastoral Staff, n.; Gr., L. The crosier; the staff with a crook at the top, usually ornamented, which is the symbol of the jurisdiction of a bishop.

Pastoral Theology, n.; Gr., L. That branch of theology which is called the science of the care of souls; it really may mean the application of all other branches of theology to the spiritual instruction of the faithful.

Pastorate, n.; L. The office of a pastor for the period he serves as pastor; the jurisdiction of a pastor.

Paten, n.; Gr., L. (1) A plate of gold used with the chalice in celebrating Mass; a circular saucer-like dish, usually of gold or gold plated, used in the celebration of the Mass. (2) A communion paten, or plate, to be held beneath the chin of the person receiving communion.

Pater Noster, n.; L. The first two words of the Latin version of the Lord's Prayer, meaning, Our Father; the prayer taught to the disciples by our Lord. (Cf. Lord's Prayer.)

Patemines,; L. A group of eleventh-century Manichean heretics who taught that matter was evil, condemned marriage, and denied the authority of the Church; they were condemned by the Council of Lombez in 1165.

Patience, n.; L. That virtue which moderates within reasonable bounds the feeling of sad- ness arising from evils or pains.

Patriarch, n.;Gr.,L. (1) In biblical use, the father or family ruler of a tribe or race. (2) The highest honor next, of course, to the Holy Father in the hierarchy of jurisdiction; a title conferred upon certain leading Church dignitaries of certain countries; the highest rank in the Orthodox Church. The Supreme Roman Pontiff is known as the "Patriarch of the West."

Patrimony, n.; L., O.Fr. The possession of sufficient personal property to secure one a living, which in the early ages was required of a cleric before ordination; an independent fund or personal properties for self-support.

Patripassians, n. pl.; L. The name given to the earliest followers of the heresy of Sabellianism which held that there was only God the Father and that He became man and suffered and died.

Patristic, adj.; L. Of or pertaining to the Fathers of the Church or their writings; that which is of the study of patrology. (Cf. Patrology.)

Patrology, n.; Gr., L. The study of the early Fathers of the Church and of their writings; the science of patristic literature. (Cf. Fathers of the Church.)

Patron, n.; L. (1) A person having a right to present a cleric to a vacant benefice.(2) A saint chosen by a nation, diocese, province, confraternity, religious family as well as by other moral persons and places with the confirmation of the Holy See.

Patronage, n.; L. In canon law, the right or power of naming or presenting a cleric to a vacant benefice.

Paulicians,; Gr., L. A quasi-Manichean or semi-Manichean sect. They denied the Sacraments, the invocation of saints and of the Blessed Virgin, and believed in two powers—one of good and one of evil. They arose in the seventh century, probably near Samosata in Asia Minor.

Pauline Privilege (paul-lyne), adj. & n.; Gr. The principle based upon '"the dispensation of the Apostle" which states that two unbaptized persons having contracted marriage, though it has been consummated, may dissolve the marriage if one of them becomes a Christian and the other refuses to be converted or places obstacles in the way of the other's observance of the Catholic Faith.

Pax, n.; L. Literally, peace. (1) The kiss of peace given in the Mass after the consecration. (2) A tablet given to the people to kiss during the Mass, an osculatorium.

Pax-brede, n.; L., A.S. A tablet or disk of precious metal, ivory, etc., bearing a sacred image and used after the Agnus Dei in the Mass to convey the kiss of peace from the celebrant to certain persons.

Pectoral Cross, adj. & n.; L. A small ornamental cross attached to a chain which the bishop wears about his neck and hanging down on his breast. The pontifical pectoral cross is one that is hollowed out to contain relics. It is usually studded with gems and is suspended on a cord, at the end of which is a gold tassel.

Peculium, n.; L. The money given by a superior to a member of the religious order to be spent for a necessary purpose at his own discretion.

Pelagianism, n.; L. The heresy begun by Pelagius in the fifth century which denied original sin and hence denied the necessity of grace. It was condemned by the third council at Ephesus.

Penance, n.; L., O.Fr. (1) The Sacrament for the forgiving of sins; the Sacrament insti-tuted by Christ for judgment of sins committed after Baptism through which remission is granted by the absolution of a duly authorized priest providing there is sorrow, intent of amendment, and a confession of sins by the penitent. It is necessary that all mortal sins be named. The power of forgiving sins given to the Apostles (John 20:23). (Cf. Absolution, Confession.) (2) Some act of mortification imposed on one confessing his sins as a condition of completely fulfilling the requirements of confession made by the confessor, usually some prayers.

Penitential Psalms, adj. &; L. The seven Psalms, numbers 6, 31, 37, 50, 101, 129, and 142, which express the sorrow for sin and the wish of forgiveness.

Penitentiary, n.; L. Latin: Penitentiaria. The Sacred Apostolic Penitenitary is the Roman tribunal of absolutions and dispensations in the internal forum to which matters of conscience may be submitted by anyone without charge, at any time and in any language. It also has charge of the granting and use of indulgences.

Penitentiary, n.; L. The Cardinal who presides over the Sacred Penitentiaria.

Pension, n.; L. An amount of money from the diocese for the support of an aged cleric granted with the fulfilling of certain conditions.

Pentateuch (pen-ta-took), n.; Gr.; Bib. The first five books of the Bible, namely. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

Pentecost (pen-ta-kost), n.; Gr., L The feast commemorating the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after Easter; Whit-Sunday.

Peplum, L. A name formerly applied to the chalice veil. (Obs.)

Pera, n.; L. The burse or bursa. (Cf. Burse.)

Peregrinus, n.; L. A traveler; in canon law, one away from his domicile or quasi-domicile.

Perfection, n.; L. Possession of all attributes without limitation; infinity of all goodness, thus it is applied to God alone. that state of grace toward which all lesser beings are directed.

Pericope, n.; L. A Lessson from Sacred Scripture to be sung or read in the liturgy.

Perjury, n.; L. The calling upon God to witness to the truth of a falsehood; a grave sin against the virtue of religion.

Perpetual Adoration, adj. & n.; L. The adoration of the Blessed Sacrament permitted in some chapels where one or more religious will be continuously kneeling in adoration before the altar.

Persecution, n.; L. Penalty of suppression inflicted upon persons or their activities for the purpose of destroying a belief; the bodily harm or death inflicted early persecution of the Church and the modern persecution by the civil authorities against members of the Catholic religion.

Perseverance, n.; L. (1) A moral virtue by which one continues in performing a good act despite difficulties; a virtue connected with fortitude. (2.) Final--the grace of continuing to death in the state of sanctifying grace; it may last many years or it have begun only a short time before death.

Person, n.; L., O.Fr. (1) An intelligent and free being; (2) A term designating either the Father, Son, or Holy Ghost in the Blessed Trinity.

Peter's Pence, n,; Gr., L. The alms collected from the faithful for the support of the Holy See and the expenses of the Vatican.

Petrobrusians, n.; Gr., L. The members of a herresy of the twelfth century which denied the real presence, and rejected infant Baptism, prayers, and Masses for the dead.

Pew, n.; L., O.Fr. The bench for seating the faithful in church, usually with a kneeler attached; a long bench with a back.

Pew rent n.; L., A.S. A few paid for the use of a particular pew in church.

Pharisees (farra-seez),; Gr., L. Those Jews who in our Lord's time scrupulously observed the Jewish law and refused to have communication with the gentiles; the proud and self-righteous.

Pieta (Peer-tar), n.; L., It. A sculpture or representation of Christ lying dead in the arms of the Blessed Mother.

Piety, n.; L. (1) The faithful performance of religious exercises; worship, adoration, thanksgiving, and fidelity to God's law are all contained in the true concept of piety. (2) One of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost. (3) The moral virtue, called filial piety, which aids one to give honor, love, and respect to his parents and to his country in recognition of the benefits we have received from them.

Pileolus, n.; L. A skull-cap. (Cf. Zuchetto.)

Pilgrim, n.; L. One making a pilgrimage to a place of religious significance or a shrine of particular devotion; one making a journey to a shrine for the purpose of becoming familiar with the place, in fulfilling a vow, in petition of some special favor, or in penance,

Pilgrimage, n.; L. The undertaking of a journey to a place of religious significance or to a shrine. (Cf. Pilgrim, Shrine.)

Pious Union, n.; L. Association of the faithful established for the exercise of works of piety or charity; if these associations are organized as a body under a head and rules, they are referred to as a sodality. Sodalities which have, besides the above conditions, the purpose to further public worship are called confraternities.

Piscina, n.; L, (1) An aperture in the wall of a sanctuary at the epistle side designed to hold the cruets; it is connected by a drain to a cavity in the ground which is the receptacle of water that has been used for any sacred purpose. The aperture, drain, and cavity constitute the piscina. There may be one in connection with a baptismal font. The piscina serves the same purpose as the sacrarium in the sacristy. (2) A water basin; sometimes used as a name for the baptismal font or the holy water font.

Pity, n.; L. The virtue which seeks to relieve another's distress or prompts one to perform acts of mercy in another's behalf.

Plain Chant, n,; L. The name applied to that system of notation used in the official music of the Church. (Cf. Chant, Gregorian Music, Plain song.)

Plain song, n.; L., A.S. Unison music in free rhythm; Gregorian music or chant.

Planeta, n.; L. The chasuble.

Platform, n.; O.Fr. The footpace; the predella; the suppedaneum. The highest level at the top of the altar steps, or that level on which the celebrant stands during the celebration of Mass. (Cf. Footpace, Predella.)  

Pluvial, n.; L, Also pluviale. A cope, a capelike vestment.

Pluivialistae,; L. (1) Chanters and other assistants at solemn functions who are dressed in copes. (2) Cope-bearers.

Podium, a.; L. (1) The portable platform on which the Pope is carried when officiating at processions of the Blessed Sacrament. (2) The screen of open columns between the altar and the nave in early churches. (Obs.)

Polemics,; Gr. Theological argumentation; theological proofs used in apologetics.

Polygamy, n.; Gr. The possession of more than one wife by a single husband. This is forbidden by the natural law as well as by the law of the Church.

Polyphony, n.; Gr. Counterpart music; four-voice musical arrangement of a melody used in chanting and choir singing. This is the notation referred to in the Motu Proprio of pope St. Pius X. It is especially applicable to the polyphony of the Roman school of the sixteenth century.

Pontiff, n.; L., Fr. A bishop; usually used in referring to the Pope, the bishop of Rome.

Pontincal Mass, ad), & n,; L. A High Mass celebrated by higher prelates; e.g., bishops, ab- bots, etc., when they wear pontificals, or the insignia or ceremonial ornaments; High Mass celebrated according to the rite proper to prelates.

Pontifical, n.; L. Latin: Pontificale Romanum. A book wherein is contained the rites and ceremonies which are performed by the bishop, or the ceremonies which pertain to the office of bishop, such as Confirmation, Ordination, the consecration of churches, altars, etc.

Pontificals ,; L. The ceremonial ornaments and vestments proper to prelates when celebrating a pontifical Mass.

Pontificate, n.; L. (1) The reign of a pope, (2) v. To celebrate pontifical Mass.

Pope, n.; Gr., L. The bishop of Rome, the vicar of Christ on earth, and the visible head of the Church; the Holy Father, the supreme Roman Pontiff; the successor of St. Peter.

Porteforium , n.; L. A name used in England to designate the breviary. (Obs.)

Porter, n.; L. The first of the minor orders, the doorkeeper, the ostiarius. (Cf. Minor Orders.)

Portiuncula, n.; It. Literally, the little piece, (1) The Church containing the original small chapel which was repaired by St. Francis of Assisi at Assisi. (2) The indulgence granted for a pilgrimage to the church of the Portiuncula or for a visit in a church where the Third Order of St. Francis has been canonically established.

Possession (Demonic/Diabolical), n.; L. That condition in which an evil spirit or devil is permitted by God to enter the body of a person. Through this the body of the person is tortured and the senses attacked by the devil, but the possessed person cannot be made to sin. yet may be tempted strongly by such possession. (Cf.Obsession, Energumen, Exorcism, Exorcist.)

Postcommunion,n.; L. The prayer or prayers, corresponding in form and number with the Collects, that are said or sung before the Ita missa est; they vary according to the feast. (Cf, Commemoration.)

Postil, n.; Fr. A commentary upon some Scripture text; sometimes applied to a short sermon explaining some passage of Scripture.

Postulancy, n.; L., Fr. A time of probation before a person is permitted to receive the habit of a religious order and to enter the novitiate.

Postulant, n.; L. Fr. The one who seeks to enter a religious order and undergoes a time of probation before the novitiate. (Cf. Novitiate.)

Postulator, n.; L. The official, always a priest and a resident of Rome, who presents and carries on the cause of beatification or canonization before the Roman Congregation of Rites.

Poverty, n.; L. The evangelical counsel recommending the renunciation of riches; the vow of poverty, ore of the vows of the religious state.

Power (of Keys), n.; L., O.Fr. The authority of forgiving sins conferred on the Apostles by Christ; the authority of the Church vested in the Supreme Roman Pontiff.

Powers,; L., O.Fr.  One of the nine choirs of angels. (Cf. Angels.)

Praetermissi, n. pl.; L Literally, those sent before. The more than two hundred English martyrs, those of the scaffold and those in chains, who have not been canonized, but who died in evidence of their Faith in England during the last half of the sixteenth century.

Prayer, n.; L., O.Fr. An act of religion consisting of thinking about God or speaking with God; meditation; vocal prayer; the reciting of prescribed words to elevate the mind and heart to God. The acts of prayer are adoration, thanksgiving, petition, and contrition; dedication of the acts of the day to God may also be prayer.

Preaching, n.; L., O.Fr. The oral instruction of the faithful; the speaking of a sermon or homily to the faithful; the oral instruction usually given by a priest in church.

Preacher, n.; L., O.Fr. One who gives a sermon or homily; one who instructs orally in public.

Prebend, n.; L., O.Fr. That portion of the revenue of chapter or collegiate church which is given to each canon or member.

Precentor, n.; L. The leader of the choir of a collegiate or monastic church or of monks in choir; it is obsolete except as the name of one making the arrangements for divine service.

Precept, n.; L., O.Fr. The command given to a single person or to a few by a duly authorized superior.

Precepts (of the Church), n. pi.; L., O.Fr. The chief commands of the Church given for the spiritual good of the faithful and obliging under pain of sin. (Cf. Commands of the Church.)

Precious Blood, adj. & n; L. The blood of Christ; the symbol of the Sacrifice of Calvary; the blood present after Consecration in the Blessed Sacrament together with the Body, Soul, and Divinity of Christ. Feast of the Precious Blood is celebrated on July 1.

Preconize, v.t.; L. The Pope's act of confirming in public consistory an appointment to a higher ecclesiastical office.

Predella, n.; It. The top step of a platform within the sanctuary on which the altar rests; the footpace.

Predestination, n.; L, In the Catholic sense is either: (a) the election to eternal glory by God of all those whom He foresees will fulfill all the unalterable conditions necessary for salvation as determined by God; or (b) the election to glory of certain men by God's absolute eternal decree and the conferring of the graces necessary for such eternal salvation. (2) In the heretical sense it includes not only positive election to glory of certain men but also reprobation of others; that the soul is fated or determined by the foreknowledge of God; it is in a sense a denial of free will and the will of God that all men be saved.

Preface, n.; L., O.Fr. A prayer of thanksgiving said during the Mass at the beginning of the canon, consisting of a dialogue and words of thanksgiving concluding with the Sanctus; there are prefaces for special feasts and for special seasons of the ecclesiastical year.

Prefect, n.; L., O.Fr. The head of a Roman Congregation, usually a cardinal, in some cases the Pope himself.

Prelate, n.; L., O.Fr. The name generally applied to an ecclesiastical dignitary who has ordinary jurisdiction in the external forum.

Presanctified (Mass), adj., L. An Eucharistic service without a consecration, the Host having been consecrated at a previous Mass. The Mass of Good Friday.

Presbytera, n.; Gr., L. In the early ages of the Church this referred to the wife of a presbyter; it is sometimes applied to widows who have devoted themselves to the service of the Church; in the Orthodox Church it is a name of the superior of a convent.

Presbytery, n.; Gr., L. In the early Church the term applied to the gathering of the clergy of a diocese; it came to be a name for that part of the church in which the clergy assisted at divine services; in recent times it is also a name for the parish house or the priest's home.

Presbyters, n.pL; Gr., L. Priests or bishops of the early Church. Now sometimes applied to assistant priests.

Prescience, n.; L. The foreknowledge of God; the knowledge God has of future events.

Prescription, n.; L. A mode of acquiring title to property or to other rights founded on uninterrupted possession for a definite period of time prescribed by law.

Presentation (of the Blessed Virgin), n.; L. The presenting of Mary, the Mother of God, in the temple at the age of three and her dedication to religion. The feast day is celebrated on the twenty-first of November.

Presumption, n.;L. An unfounded expectation of gaining salvation or the means of obtaining it; an exaggerated reliance upon means of salvation which are contrary to or other than those willed by God. It follows upon pride and leads one to expect certain favors.

Prevenient, adj.; L. Literally, coming before. Said of that grace which precedes the consent of the will, thus moving and disposing the will to act. (Cf. Grace.)

Pride, n.; A.S. The inordinate desire for one's own exaltation; a sin contrary to charity and to the proper subjection of man to God. One of the capital sins. (Cf. Capital sins.)

Prie dieu (pray-joo), n.; Fr. Literally: pray God. A kneeling bench consisting of a rest for the knees and an upright for the support of the elbows.

Priest, n.; Gr., L, One upon whom the Sacrament of Holy Orders has been conferred and who is thereby a minister of divine worship; one upon whom the power of offering sacrifice, of blessing, of giving absolution, and of preaching has been conferred. (Cf. Priesthood.)

Priesthood, n.; Gr., L. A.S. The office of priest; the character marking the soul by the valid reception of the Sacrament of Holy Orders. The power to consecrate, thus to offer the Sacrifice of the Mass; the priesthood has the power to administer sacraments, forgive sins, and to bless. Also the entire body of the clergy.

Primate,, n.; L. In the early Church all bishops of importance were so called; now, an honorary title carrying with it the right to precedence over all bishops and archbishops of a country.

Prime, n.; L., A.S, The name of a portion of the Breviarium; the first of the canonical hours.

Principalities,; L. One of the nine choirs of angels. (Cf. Angels.)

Prior, n.; L., A.S. The one in charge of an independent monastery or the assistant or coadjutor of the abbot. Some religious orders have three grades of prior.

Prioress, n.; L., A.S. The superior of sisters or nuns immediately below an abbess or the one ruling an independent convent of sisters.

Priory, n.; L. Any monastery of men or convent of women governed by a prior or prioress.

Private Revelation, adj. & n.; L. Revelation or knowledge imparted by God to individuals for some particular purpose or to give some particular instruction.

Privation, n.; L. A vindictive penalty in Church law depriving a cleric of his benefice or office.

Privilege, n.; L. (1) The grant of a benefit or favor against or outside the law given to a particular individual or place. The grant to one person by the Holy See of a law of concession, given in perpetuity; the granting of a private law outside of the law for grave reasons. (2) The granting of special favors to clerics because of their office; e.g., exemption from military service. Privileges may be acquired not only by direct concession but also by their extension to a group, by legitimate custom and prescription.

Privileged Altar, n.; L. An altar with the grant of a plenary indulgence attached to a Mass celebrated on it for a departed soul and applied to that soul.

Probabilism, n.; L. That system of moral theology which teaches that, in cases of doubt about the lawfulness of an action, if there is a probable opinion that the law does not bind, the law need not be fulfilled. (Cf. Equiprobabilism.)

Probabiliorism, n.; L. The system of moral theology which holds that in cases of doubt it is wrong to act by following an opinion that favors liberty against the demands of law unless that opinion is more prob-able than that which favors the law or obligation,

Pro-cathedral, n.; Gr., L. The church used temporarily by a bishop for his cathedral.

Process, n.; L. The preliminaries and the procedure in the beatification or canonization of a saint. (Cf. Beatification; Canonization.)

Procession, n.; L. The mode of distinction and unity between the Holy Ghost, the Son and the Father in the Blessed Trinity. Emanation within the Godhead: either of one divine person from another (the Son from the Father), or of one divine person from two divine persons as from one principle (the Holy Ghost from the Father and the Son).

Processional (cross), n.; L. A crucifix mounted on a staff which is carried at the head of a ceremonial procession; also the archiepiscopal cross carried before an archbishop when he solemnly exercises the functions of his office in his own ecclesiastical province.

Processional, n.; L. Latin: Processionale. A book containing the chants from the Rituale Romanum used in liturgical processions.

Processions, n. pl.; L. People marching together in public adoration of God or for a particular spiritual purpose; a procession of the Blessed Sacrament.

Procurator, n.; L. An official agent authorized to act for another or for a group of persons.

Procuratrix, n.; L. The sister or nun who has charge of the business affairs of a religious community.

Profanity, n.; L. The reference in speech to sacred persons or things in a vulgar or improper manner; this presupposes that there is no blasphemy intended or directly stated by the words.

Profession, n.; L. The promise freely made and lawfully accepted of a person upon entering a religious order, after going through a novitiate which has been continuous over the period of time required.

Profession (of faith), n.; L. The oral pronouncement of faith in the principal tenets of the Cadiolic religion; a statement of assent to belief; an expression of faith such as the recitation of one or the other of the creeds.

Promulgation, n.; L. The making known of a law enacted by ths authority of the Church; publication sufficient to make widespread the knowledge of a law.

Prone, n.; Fr. A call to prayer made in French and Belgian churches before preaching the sermon.

Propaganda, n.; L. (1) The Sacred Congregation of Propaganda, established for dealing with all ecclesiastical affairs in missions of the Latin rite throughout the world and having jurisdiction over all foreign missions. (Cf. Congregations.) (2) The College of Propaganda, a college founded in Rome for the education of men, from all nations, to the priesthood for the purpose of carrying on missionary work.

Proper, n.; L., O.Fr. Parts of the liturgy of the Mass which vary according to the feast of the day. Also the proper of the season which is the division of the Missale and Breviarium according to the Sundays of the season; or the proper of the Saints which is the portion of the Missale and Breviarium giving the parts for the feasts of our Lord or the Saints. The proper of the Mass is the prayers which are variant and inserted into the ordinary of the Mass. These prayers are; the Introit; the Collects; the Epistle; the Gradual; the Tract; the Gospel; the Offertory; the Secrets; the Communion; the Postcommunion. (Cf. Ordinary of the Mass.)

Prophecy, n.; Gr., L. Something foretold; that which is spoken by a prophet; a prediction. The foretelling of future events which are not known by natural reason; the revelation to one of knowledge existing in the mind of God to be told to others or to be used for the individual's own salvation; the prediction of a future event which cannot be known from natural causes.

Prophesy, v.; Gr., L. To predict; to foretell the future. (Cf. Prophecy.)

Prophets,; Gr., L. A prophet of the Jews was a messenger of God and a preacher as well as a foreteller of the future which could not be known from natural causes, (1) Major. (Because of the greater length of their work) Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel,and Daniel. (2) Minor. Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, Micheas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zacharias, and Malachias. Baruch and the Lamentations are generally included under Jeremias.

Propitiation, n.; L. Appeasement, satisfaction. Prayer addressed to the mercy of God for sinners. One of the ends of the Sacrifice of the Mass and of worship generally.

Proposition, n.; L. (1) In philosophy (logic), a statement which is capable of being be- lieved, doubted, or denied. Usually, expression of that which is to be proved. (2) A term used in regard to heresies, usually that part of the heresy which is condemned by the Church.

Prose, n.; L., O.Fr. A name applied to that part of the Mass between the Epistle and the Gospel and so named because it was originally written in rhythmical prose, not in strict meter as hymns are written. It is regarded as a synonym for sequence. (Cf. Sequence.)

Proselyte, n.; Gr., L. A person converted from one religion to another.

Protestant, n.; L., Fr. The name of those who at the Reformation rejected the authority of the Church; name of a religious adherent or sect which rejects the authority of the Church.

Protevangelion, n.; L. The promise of a Redeemer to come given to Adam and Eve immediately after the fall (Gen.15); the so-called "First Gospel."

Protocanonical, adj.; Gr., L. Said of those books of the Bible about which there was no controversy as to whether or not they were truly Sacred Scripture; genuine books of the canon of Scripture.

Protomartyr, n.; Gr. (1) The first martyr, namely, St. Stephen. (2) The first martyr in any land.

Protonotary, n.; Gr., L. Also prothonotary. Originally a chief notary, later a member of the college of protonotaries Apostolic of the Roman Curia; it may also be an honorary title conferred by the Pope granting certain privileges to the bearer. The highest grade of monsignori, those having the title of monsignor.

Protopresbyter, n.; Gr., L. A name used in the early Eastern Church corresponding to archpriest. (Obs.)

Proverbs,; L.; Bib. Book of the Old Testament containing proverbs and wise counsels, supposedly written for the most part by Solomon,

Providence, n.; L. Used with the word "divine" it means the din:cdon by God of all things to their end. The sustaining by God of all :reation, the keeping of all things in existence for the time that He wills.

Province, n.; L. (1) That territory made up of several dioceses under the jurisdiction of an archbishop or metropolitan, the archdiocese and at least one suffragan diocese. (2) The territory forming a division of a religious order, made up of all its religious houses within that district.

Provincial, n.; L. The member of a religious order appointed by the general who is in authority or the director of a certain territory and all of the religious houses of that order within this territory; the religious superior of a province.

Provision, n.; L. A term in canon law which means the granting of an ecclesiastical office by a competent ecclesiastical superior according to the norms of the sacred canons.

Provost, n.; L., A.S. The head of a meeting of clergy or the head of a chapter or body of canons; also the one second in authority of a religious order under an abbot.

Prudence, n.; L., Fr. The cardinal virtue inclining one to the right choice of action in the particular circumstances of life.

Prymer, n.; L., A.S. Also primer. A book used in England before the Reformation containing the office of the Blessed Virgin, psalms and litanies and various other prayers. (Obs.)

Psalmody, n.; Gr., L. The singing of psalms; the music for such singing.

Psalter, n.; L., A.S. The book containing the psalms which are used in liturgical services; sometimes applied to a vesperal.

Psalterial, adj.; L., A.S. Of or pertaining to the psalter; of or pertaining to the Psalms. Made up of Psalms.

P.T., abbre.; L. First letters of the Latin words Paschale tempore, the Easter time or season, the fifty-six days from Holy Saturday to the Saturday following Pentecost.

Publicans,; L Jews who were tax gatherers for the Romans in the days of our Lord, and as such were held in contempt.

Pudicity, n.; L. That virtue of temperance closely allied to chastity which moderates all acts which might give rise to an occasion of sin against purity.

Pulpit, n.; L. The raised platform, approached by steps and usually surrounded by a railing, from which the preacher addresses the congregation or members of the faithful.

Pulpitum, n.; L. A lectern.

Punctum, n.; L. A single note in Gregorian music.

Purgatory, n.; L. The state and the place of punishment where the temporal punishment due to sins previously forgiven must be endured, and the guilt of unrepented venial sins is cleared away from the soul of the person dying in the state of grace; the place of cleansing and preparation from which the soul goes directly to heaven.

Purification, n.; L, (1) The pouring of wine into the chalice after the priest has received communion to cleanse the chalice of remaining particles; the purification is then drunk by the priest. (2) The ancient custom of the Levitical law by which a woman was said to be unclean for seven days after the birth of a male child and needed to be purified by appearing in the temple after forty days and making a sin-ofrering; the Feast of the Blessed Virgin celebrated on February 2 and commemorating this event in the life of the Blessed Mother.

Purificator, n.; L. The small white linen cloth used during the Mass to cleanse and dry the chalice; a purifier; also called mundatory. (Cf. Mundatory.)

Purity, n.; L, The state of innocence and freedom from sin maintained for a high motive; freedom from sin and defilement of soul. It is applied in particular to freedom from sins against chartity in thought, word, or deed.

Pusillanimity, n.; L. A smallness of soul which prompts one to shun virtuous actions; fear or spiritual weakness causing one to refrain from doing good; it is contrary to the virtue of hope.

Putative, adj.; L. Something supposed or thought to be what it is not. Applied to a marriage entered into by two persons before a priest and two witnesses, but which is invalid because of some impediment unknown to at least one of the parties. Children born of a putative marriage are considered legitimate by the Church.

Pyx, n.; Gr., L. (a) A small vessel, usually shaped like a pocket watch, in which the Holy Eucharist is carried to the sick or dying, usually in a silk bag suspended around the priest's neck and concealed under his street attire. (b) The round metal case which holds the lunette; the custodial. (c) The ciborium. In general this may mean any container.

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